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MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS, CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION OF GUNSHOT AND GUNSHOT-LIKE SOUNDS

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Date Issued:
2022
Abstract/Description:
The recent uptick in senseless shootings in otherwise quiet and relatively safe environments is powerful evidence of the need, now more than ever, to reduce these occurrences. Artificial intelligence (AI) can play a significant role in deterring individuals from attempting these acts of violence. The installation of audio sensors can assist in the proper surveillance of surroundings linked to public safety, which is the first step toward AI-driven surveillance. With the increasing popularity of machine learning (ML) processes, systems are being developed and optimized to assist personnel in highly dangerous situations. In addition to saving innocent lives, supporting the capture of the responsible criminals is part of the AI algorithm that can be hosted in acoustic gunshot detection systems (AGDSs). Although there has been some speculation that these AGDSs produce a higher false positive rate (FPR) than reported in their specifications, optimizing the dataset used for the model’s training and testing will enhance its performance. This dissertation proposes a new gunshot-like sound database that can be incorporated into a dataset for improved training and testing of a ML gunshot detection model. Reduction of the sample bias (that is, a bias in ML caused by an incomplete database) is achievable. The Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) feature extraction process was utilized in this research. The uniform manifold and projection (UMAP) algorithm revealed that the MFCCs of this newly created database were the closest sounds to a gunshot sound, as compared to other gunshot-like sounds reported in literature. The UMAP algorithm reinforced the outcome derived from the calculation of the distances of the centroids of various gunshot-like sounds in MFCCs’ clusters. Further research was conducted into the feature reduction aspect of the gunshot detection ML model. Reducing a feature set to a minimum, while also maintaining a high accuracy rate, is a key parameter of a highly efficient model. Therefore, it is necessary for field deployed ML applications to be computationally light weight and highly efficient. Building on the discoveries of this research can lead to the development of highly efficient gunshot detection models.
Title: MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS, CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION OF GUNSHOT AND GUNSHOT-LIKE SOUNDS.
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Name(s): Baliram, Rajesh Singh, author
Zhuang, Hanqi , Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2022
Date Issued: 2022
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 127 p.
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: The recent uptick in senseless shootings in otherwise quiet and relatively safe environments is powerful evidence of the need, now more than ever, to reduce these occurrences. Artificial intelligence (AI) can play a significant role in deterring individuals from attempting these acts of violence. The installation of audio sensors can assist in the proper surveillance of surroundings linked to public safety, which is the first step toward AI-driven surveillance. With the increasing popularity of machine learning (ML) processes, systems are being developed and optimized to assist personnel in highly dangerous situations. In addition to saving innocent lives, supporting the capture of the responsible criminals is part of the AI algorithm that can be hosted in acoustic gunshot detection systems (AGDSs). Although there has been some speculation that these AGDSs produce a higher false positive rate (FPR) than reported in their specifications, optimizing the dataset used for the model’s training and testing will enhance its performance. This dissertation proposes a new gunshot-like sound database that can be incorporated into a dataset for improved training and testing of a ML gunshot detection model. Reduction of the sample bias (that is, a bias in ML caused by an incomplete database) is achievable. The Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) feature extraction process was utilized in this research. The uniform manifold and projection (UMAP) algorithm revealed that the MFCCs of this newly created database were the closest sounds to a gunshot sound, as compared to other gunshot-like sounds reported in literature. The UMAP algorithm reinforced the outcome derived from the calculation of the distances of the centroids of various gunshot-like sounds in MFCCs’ clusters. Further research was conducted into the feature reduction aspect of the gunshot detection ML model. Reducing a feature set to a minimum, while also maintaining a high accuracy rate, is a key parameter of a highly efficient model. Therefore, it is necessary for field deployed ML applications to be computationally light weight and highly efficient. Building on the discoveries of this research can lead to the development of highly efficient gunshot detection models.
Identifier: FA00014110 (IID)
Degree granted: Dissertation (PhD)--Florida Atlantic University, 2022.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Firearms
Sound
Detectors
Machine learning
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00014110
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.