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PREDICTING MELANOMA RISK FROM ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS WITH MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

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Date Issued:
2019
Abstract/Description:
Melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers in the world, and can affect patients earlier in life than most other cancers. Therefore, it is imperative to be able to identify patients at high risk for melanoma and enroll them in screening programs to detect the cancer early. Electronic health records collect an enormous amount of data about real-world patient encounters, treatments, and outcomes. This data can be mined to increase our understanding of melanoma as well as build personalized models to predict risk of developing the cancer. Cancer risk models built from structured clinical data are limited in current research, with most studies involving just a few variables from institutional databases or registries. This dissertation presents data processing and machine learning approaches to build melanoma risk models from a large database of de-identified electronic health records. The database contains consistently captured structured data, enabling the extraction of hundreds of thousands of data points each from millions of patient records. Several experiments are performed to build effective models, particularly to predict sentinel lymph node metastasis in known melanoma patients and to predict individual risk of developing melanoma. Data for these models suffer from high dimensionality and class imbalance. Thus, classifiers such as logistic regression, support vector machines, random forest, and XGBoost are combined with advanced modeling techniques such as feature selection and data sampling. Risk factors are evaluated using regression model weights and decision trees, while personalized predictions are provided through random forest decomposition and Shapley additive explanations. Random undersampling on the melanoma risk dataset shows that many majority samples can be removed without a decrease in model performance. To determine how much data is truly needed, we explore learning curve approximation methods on the melanoma data and three publicly-available large-scale biomedical datasets. We apply an inverse power law model as well as introduce a novel semi-supervised curve creation method that utilizes a small amount of labeled data.
Title: PREDICTING MELANOMA RISK FROM ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS WITH MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES.
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Name(s): Richter, Aaron N., author
Khoshgoftaar, Taghi M., Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2019
Date Issued: 2019
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 191 p.
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers in the world, and can affect patients earlier in life than most other cancers. Therefore, it is imperative to be able to identify patients at high risk for melanoma and enroll them in screening programs to detect the cancer early. Electronic health records collect an enormous amount of data about real-world patient encounters, treatments, and outcomes. This data can be mined to increase our understanding of melanoma as well as build personalized models to predict risk of developing the cancer. Cancer risk models built from structured clinical data are limited in current research, with most studies involving just a few variables from institutional databases or registries. This dissertation presents data processing and machine learning approaches to build melanoma risk models from a large database of de-identified electronic health records. The database contains consistently captured structured data, enabling the extraction of hundreds of thousands of data points each from millions of patient records. Several experiments are performed to build effective models, particularly to predict sentinel lymph node metastasis in known melanoma patients and to predict individual risk of developing melanoma. Data for these models suffer from high dimensionality and class imbalance. Thus, classifiers such as logistic regression, support vector machines, random forest, and XGBoost are combined with advanced modeling techniques such as feature selection and data sampling. Risk factors are evaluated using regression model weights and decision trees, while personalized predictions are provided through random forest decomposition and Shapley additive explanations. Random undersampling on the melanoma risk dataset shows that many majority samples can be removed without a decrease in model performance. To determine how much data is truly needed, we explore learning curve approximation methods on the melanoma data and three publicly-available large-scale biomedical datasets. We apply an inverse power law model as well as introduce a novel semi-supervised curve creation method that utilizes a small amount of labeled data.
Identifier: FA00013342 (IID)
Degree granted: Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2019.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Melanoma
Electronic Health Records
Machine learning--Technique
Big Data
Held by: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
Sublocation: Digital Library
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00013342
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Use and Reproduction: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.