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Chloride Diffusivity and Aging Factor Determined on Field Simulated Concrete Exposed to Seawater

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Date Issued:
2019
Abstract/Description:
Chloride diffusivity in high performance concrete is influenced by the exposure environment, aside from the concrete mixture properties like, water to cementitious ratio (w/cm) and presence of add-on pozzolans. In this study, a set of concrete specimens (eleven-different concrete mixtures) were cast and exposed to three different environmental conditions (Tidal, Splash and Barge) in which the solution was seawater or brackish water. These exposures simulated environmental field conditions. After the specimens had been wet cured for 32 days (on average), the specimens were exposed to three different field simulation conditions for up to 54 months. The specimens under the field simulated conditions were cored at 6, 10, 18, 30 and 54 months at four elevations and then the chloride profiles were obtained from the cores. The apparent diffusivity values for each profile were calculated based on Fick’s 2nd law. Then, the aging factor “m” was calculated by regression analysis of the diffusivity values vs. time (days) plotted in the log10-log10 scale. This was done for samples exposed to the three different exposure conditions and then the results were compared side-by-side. First, the “m” values were calculated using the exposure duration. Then, to study the effect of including the curing time on “m” value, the curing time was added to the exposure time and a new calculation and “m” value was obtained and compared with the previous results. Moreover, upon inspecting the chloride diffusivity values vs. time plots, it was observed that in some cases, a number of data points showed significantly higher or lower values in comparison with the rest of the data points. It was decided to recalculate the “m” values for these cases, and to only use selected data points instead of all data points (i.e., remove outlier data points). In terms of chloride diffusivity value, it was found that in most cases the specimens with higher water to cementitious (w/cm) ratio showed higher diffusivity, as expected. Further, the presence of pozzolans had a noticeable impact on the chloride diffusivity by decreasing the diffusion rate due to microstructure changes that occurred with time. In terms of “m” values, the result for the field simulated conditions showed a range of “m” values dependent on the specimen’s mixture composition and the elevation at which the specimens were cored. It was observed that the chloride diffusivity declined with time and after a certain amount of time (in this research, almost after 30 months) the diffusivity reduction became small and a transition in the slope of the diffusivity trend appeared in a number of cases. After the transition, the diffusivity trend reached either a plateau zone or continued with a significantly lower slope, depending on the time, composition and exposure. It was found that the specimens under tidal and splash field simulation conditions that had only fly ash in their mixtures showed higher “m” values when compared with samples that contained fly ash and silica fume or fifty percent slag.
Title: Chloride Diffusivity and Aging Factor Determined on Field Simulated Concrete Exposed to Seawater.
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Name(s): Raof, Farhad Fakheri, author
Presuel-Moreno, Francisco, Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Department of Ocean and Mechanical Engineering
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2019
Date Issued: 2019
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 268 p.
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Chloride diffusivity in high performance concrete is influenced by the exposure environment, aside from the concrete mixture properties like, water to cementitious ratio (w/cm) and presence of add-on pozzolans. In this study, a set of concrete specimens (eleven-different concrete mixtures) were cast and exposed to three different environmental conditions (Tidal, Splash and Barge) in which the solution was seawater or brackish water. These exposures simulated environmental field conditions. After the specimens had been wet cured for 32 days (on average), the specimens were exposed to three different field simulation conditions for up to 54 months. The specimens under the field simulated conditions were cored at 6, 10, 18, 30 and 54 months at four elevations and then the chloride profiles were obtained from the cores. The apparent diffusivity values for each profile were calculated based on Fick’s 2nd law. Then, the aging factor “m” was calculated by regression analysis of the diffusivity values vs. time (days) plotted in the log10-log10 scale. This was done for samples exposed to the three different exposure conditions and then the results were compared side-by-side. First, the “m” values were calculated using the exposure duration. Then, to study the effect of including the curing time on “m” value, the curing time was added to the exposure time and a new calculation and “m” value was obtained and compared with the previous results. Moreover, upon inspecting the chloride diffusivity values vs. time plots, it was observed that in some cases, a number of data points showed significantly higher or lower values in comparison with the rest of the data points. It was decided to recalculate the “m” values for these cases, and to only use selected data points instead of all data points (i.e., remove outlier data points). In terms of chloride diffusivity value, it was found that in most cases the specimens with higher water to cementitious (w/cm) ratio showed higher diffusivity, as expected. Further, the presence of pozzolans had a noticeable impact on the chloride diffusivity by decreasing the diffusion rate due to microstructure changes that occurred with time. In terms of “m” values, the result for the field simulated conditions showed a range of “m” values dependent on the specimen’s mixture composition and the elevation at which the specimens were cored. It was observed that the chloride diffusivity declined with time and after a certain amount of time (in this research, almost after 30 months) the diffusivity reduction became small and a transition in the slope of the diffusivity trend appeared in a number of cases. After the transition, the diffusivity trend reached either a plateau zone or continued with a significantly lower slope, depending on the time, composition and exposure. It was found that the specimens under tidal and splash field simulation conditions that had only fly ash in their mixtures showed higher “m” values when compared with samples that contained fly ash and silica fume or fifty percent slag.
Identifier: FA00013254 (IID)
Degree granted: Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2019.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Concrete--Environmental testing
Seawater
Chlorides
Diffusion
Concrete--Deterioration
Held by: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
Sublocation: Digital Library
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00013254
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Use and Reproduction: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.