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Smart Adaptive Beaconing Schemes for VANET

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Date Issued:
2018
Abstract/Description:
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is a wireless ad-hoc network that includes two types of communications, Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). In VANET there are two types of messages. The first type is the event-driven messages that are only triggered in case of emergency. The second type is the periodical messages named beacons that are exchanged frequently between vehicles. A beacon message contains basic information about the sending vehicle such as id, location and velocity. Beacons are frequently exchanged to increase the cooperative awareness between vehicles. Increasing beacon frequency helps increasing neighborhood awareness and improving information accuracy. However, this causes more congestion in the network, specially when the number of vehicles increases. On the other hand, reducing beacon frequency alleviates network congestion, but results in out-dated information. In this dissertation, we address the aforementioned challenges and propose a number of smart beaconing protocols and evaluate their performance in di↵erent environments and network densities. The four adaptive beaconing protocols are designed to increase the cooperative awareness and information freshness, while alleviating the network congestion. All the proposed protocols take into account the most important aspects, which are critical to beaconing rate adaptation. These aspects include channel status, traffic conditions and link quality. The proposed protocols employ fuzzy logic-based techniques to determine the congestion rank, which is used to adjust beacon frequency. The first protocol considers signal to interference-noise ratio (SINR), number of neighboring nodes and mobility to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate accordingly. This protocol works well in sparse conditions and highway environments. The second protocol works well in sparse conditions and urban environments. It uses channel busy time (CBT), mobility and packet delivery ratio (PDR) to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate. The third protocol utilizes CBT, SINR, PDR, number of neighbors and mobility as inputs for the fuzzy logic system to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate. This protocol works well in dense conditions in both highway and urban environments. Through extensive simulation experiments, we established that certain input parameters are more e↵ective in beacon rate adaptation for certain environments and conditions. Based on this, we propose a high awareness and channel efficient scheme that adapts to di↵erent environments and conditions. First, the protocol estimates the network density using adaptive threshold function. Then, it looks at the spatial distribution of nodes using the quadrat method to determine whether the environment is highway or urban. Based on the density conditions and nodes distribution, the protocol utilizes the appropriate fuzzy input parameters to adapt the beaconing rate. In addition, the protocol optimizes the performance by adapting the transmission power based on network density and nodes distribution. Finally, an investigation of the impact of adaptive beaconing on broadcasting is conducted. The simulation results confirm that our adaptive beaconing scheme can improve performance of the broadcast protocols in terms of reachability and bandwidth consumption when compared to a fixed rate scheme.
Title: Smart Adaptive Beaconing Schemes for VANET.
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Name(s): Alhameed, Mohammed, author
Mahgoub, Imad, Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2018
Date Issued: 2018
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 148 p.
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is a wireless ad-hoc network that includes two types of communications, Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). In VANET there are two types of messages. The first type is the event-driven messages that are only triggered in case of emergency. The second type is the periodical messages named beacons that are exchanged frequently between vehicles. A beacon message contains basic information about the sending vehicle such as id, location and velocity. Beacons are frequently exchanged to increase the cooperative awareness between vehicles. Increasing beacon frequency helps increasing neighborhood awareness and improving information accuracy. However, this causes more congestion in the network, specially when the number of vehicles increases. On the other hand, reducing beacon frequency alleviates network congestion, but results in out-dated information. In this dissertation, we address the aforementioned challenges and propose a number of smart beaconing protocols and evaluate their performance in di↵erent environments and network densities. The four adaptive beaconing protocols are designed to increase the cooperative awareness and information freshness, while alleviating the network congestion. All the proposed protocols take into account the most important aspects, which are critical to beaconing rate adaptation. These aspects include channel status, traffic conditions and link quality. The proposed protocols employ fuzzy logic-based techniques to determine the congestion rank, which is used to adjust beacon frequency. The first protocol considers signal to interference-noise ratio (SINR), number of neighboring nodes and mobility to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate accordingly. This protocol works well in sparse conditions and highway environments. The second protocol works well in sparse conditions and urban environments. It uses channel busy time (CBT), mobility and packet delivery ratio (PDR) to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate. The third protocol utilizes CBT, SINR, PDR, number of neighbors and mobility as inputs for the fuzzy logic system to determine the congestion rank and adjust the beacon rate. This protocol works well in dense conditions in both highway and urban environments. Through extensive simulation experiments, we established that certain input parameters are more e↵ective in beacon rate adaptation for certain environments and conditions. Based on this, we propose a high awareness and channel efficient scheme that adapts to di↵erent environments and conditions. First, the protocol estimates the network density using adaptive threshold function. Then, it looks at the spatial distribution of nodes using the quadrat method to determine whether the environment is highway or urban. Based on the density conditions and nodes distribution, the protocol utilizes the appropriate fuzzy input parameters to adapt the beaconing rate. In addition, the protocol optimizes the performance by adapting the transmission power based on network density and nodes distribution. Finally, an investigation of the impact of adaptive beaconing on broadcasting is conducted. The simulation results confirm that our adaptive beaconing scheme can improve performance of the broadcast protocols in terms of reachability and bandwidth consumption when compared to a fixed rate scheme.
Identifier: FA00013112 (IID)
Degree granted: Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2018.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Vehicular ad hoc networks (Computer networks)
Beacons
Fuzzy logic
Adaptive computing systems
Held by: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
Sublocation: Digital Library
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00013112
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Use and Reproduction: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.