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cGMP/PKG-regulated mechanisms of protection from low oxygen and oxidative stress

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Date Issued:
2018
Abstract/Description:
Stroke is one of the leading causes of human death in the United States. The debilitating effects of an ischemic stroke are due to the fact that mammalian neurons are highly susceptible to hypoxia and subsequent oxygen reperfusion. From studies in Drosophila melanogaster, cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) enzyme is thought to affect anoxia tolerance by modifying the electrical current through potassium ion channels. In this research, two animal models were employed: Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian neurons exposed to stroke-like conditions. First, in vivo studies using Drosophila were performed to further our knowledge about the differences between the naturally occurring variants of the Drosophila foraging gene, which shows different protein levels of PKG. Mitochondrial density and metabolic activity between two fly genotypes exposed to anoxia and reoxygenation were compared. It was found that flies with less enzyme potentially showed mitochondrial biogenesis and higher metabolic rates upon reoxygenation. Next, in vivo studies where PKG enzyme was activated pharmacologically were performed; it was found that the activation of the cGMP/PKG pathway led to neuroprotection upon anoxia and reoxygenation. Furthermore, this model was translated into the in vitro model using Drosophila cells. Instead of anoxia and reoxygenation, hypoxia mimetics and hydrogen peroxide were used to induce cellular injury. After showing the cGMP/PKG pathway activation-induced cell protection, the potential downstream targets of the molecular signaling as well as underlying biochemical changes were assessed. It was found that mitochondrial potassium ion channels were involved in the protective signaling and the signaling modulated metabolic function. Furthermore, it was found that acidosis protected Drosophila cells from cell death, metabolic disruption, and oxidative stress. Finally, this research was translated to a mammalian in vitro model of neuronal damage upon stroke-like conditions; there, it was demonstrated that the cGMP/PKG pathway activation in rat primary cortical neurons and human cortical neurons was protective from low oxygen and acute oxidative stress. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms taking place during low oxygen and oxidative stresses. Consequently, this knowledge may be used to identify potential therapeutic targets and treatments that may prevent detrimental neurological effects of an ischemic stroke in humans.
Title: cGMP/PKG-regulated mechanisms of protection from low oxygen and oxidative stress.
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Name(s): Mahneva, Olena, author
Milton, Sarah L., Thesis advisor
Dawson-Scully, Ken, Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
Charles E. Schmidt College of Science
Department of Biological Sciences
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2018
Date Issued: 2018
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 197 p.
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Stroke is one of the leading causes of human death in the United States. The debilitating effects of an ischemic stroke are due to the fact that mammalian neurons are highly susceptible to hypoxia and subsequent oxygen reperfusion. From studies in Drosophila melanogaster, cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) enzyme is thought to affect anoxia tolerance by modifying the electrical current through potassium ion channels. In this research, two animal models were employed: Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian neurons exposed to stroke-like conditions. First, in vivo studies using Drosophila were performed to further our knowledge about the differences between the naturally occurring variants of the Drosophila foraging gene, which shows different protein levels of PKG. Mitochondrial density and metabolic activity between two fly genotypes exposed to anoxia and reoxygenation were compared. It was found that flies with less enzyme potentially showed mitochondrial biogenesis and higher metabolic rates upon reoxygenation. Next, in vivo studies where PKG enzyme was activated pharmacologically were performed; it was found that the activation of the cGMP/PKG pathway led to neuroprotection upon anoxia and reoxygenation. Furthermore, this model was translated into the in vitro model using Drosophila cells. Instead of anoxia and reoxygenation, hypoxia mimetics and hydrogen peroxide were used to induce cellular injury. After showing the cGMP/PKG pathway activation-induced cell protection, the potential downstream targets of the molecular signaling as well as underlying biochemical changes were assessed. It was found that mitochondrial potassium ion channels were involved in the protective signaling and the signaling modulated metabolic function. Furthermore, it was found that acidosis protected Drosophila cells from cell death, metabolic disruption, and oxidative stress. Finally, this research was translated to a mammalian in vitro model of neuronal damage upon stroke-like conditions; there, it was demonstrated that the cGMP/PKG pathway activation in rat primary cortical neurons and human cortical neurons was protective from low oxygen and acute oxidative stress. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms taking place during low oxygen and oxidative stresses. Consequently, this knowledge may be used to identify potential therapeutic targets and treatments that may prevent detrimental neurological effects of an ischemic stroke in humans.
Identifier: FA00013013 (IID)
Degree granted: Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2018.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Stroke
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Oxidative Stress
Held by: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
Sublocation: Digital Library
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00013013
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author, with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.