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Discovery of Loxosomella vivipara (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae) in the Marine Sponge Hippospongia cf. gossypina (Porifera: Spongiidae) in the Florida Keys

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Date Issued:
2016
Summary:
Populations of a marine invertebrate symbiont were found on the outer surface and internal spaces of a keratose sponge from a shallow bay in the Florida Keys in May 2014. A total of 24 specimens of the seagrass and reef-dwelling sponge were collected between May 2014 and August 2015 to provide material to identify both host and symbiont, and elucidate information on the nature of the association. Based on a morphological analysis via light microscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and 99% similarity in aligned partial sequences from 28S and 18S nuclear ribosomal genes (rDNA), the symbiont was identified as the solitary entoproct Loxosomella vivipara Nielsen, 1966 (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae). A partial sequence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region 2 (ITS2) of L. vivipara was registered to GenBank for the first time. The identity of the host sponge, based on a morphological investigation, is resolved as “velvet sponge” Hippospongia cf. gossypina Duchassing and Michelotti, 1864 (Demospongiae: Spongiidae). This is the first report of an entoproct commensal from Hippospongia cf. gossypina, a sponge that formerly had great commercial value when it was abundant throughout the Bahamas, Florida Keys and Gulf of Mexico. Other common sponge species at the study site were collected to investigate the host specificity of L. vivipara. Evidence that L. vivipara favorably selects the sponges Hippospongia cf. gossypina and Chondrilla nucula over other potential host sponges at the study site is provided. Commensalism is the most plausible justification for this relationship: L. vivipara is dependent on sponges for protection and food particles, while the sponges are unaffected by its presence. Further evidence of host-specific inquilinism is provided for L. vivipara associated with Hippospongia cf. gossypina, but not for L. vivipara associated with C. nucula. An inquilinistic association between an entoproct and sponge is a rare discovery only mentioned in one previous study. Sponge aquiferous qualities such as aperture and canal size, canal and choanocyte chamber arrangement, seawater pumping rate, and food particle size selection are likely factors that inhibit or enable inquilinism in sponge-entoproct associations – a potential topic for future researc
Title: Discovery of Loxosomella vivipara (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae) in the Marine Sponge Hippospongia cf. gossypina (Porifera: Spongiidae) in the Florida Keys.
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Name(s): Plunkett, Rachel, author
Pomponi, Shirley A., Thesis advisor
Florida Atlantic University, Degree grantor
Charles E. Schmidt College of Science
Department of Biological Sciences
Type of Resource: text
Genre: Electronic Thesis Or Dissertation
Date Created: 2016
Date Issued: 2016
Publisher: Florida Atlantic University
Place of Publication: Boca Raton, Fla.
Physical Form: application/pdf
Extent: 62 p.
Language(s): English
Summary: Populations of a marine invertebrate symbiont were found on the outer surface and internal spaces of a keratose sponge from a shallow bay in the Florida Keys in May 2014. A total of 24 specimens of the seagrass and reef-dwelling sponge were collected between May 2014 and August 2015 to provide material to identify both host and symbiont, and elucidate information on the nature of the association. Based on a morphological analysis via light microscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and 99% similarity in aligned partial sequences from 28S and 18S nuclear ribosomal genes (rDNA), the symbiont was identified as the solitary entoproct Loxosomella vivipara Nielsen, 1966 (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae). A partial sequence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer Region 2 (ITS2) of L. vivipara was registered to GenBank for the first time. The identity of the host sponge, based on a morphological investigation, is resolved as “velvet sponge” Hippospongia cf. gossypina Duchassing and Michelotti, 1864 (Demospongiae: Spongiidae). This is the first report of an entoproct commensal from Hippospongia cf. gossypina, a sponge that formerly had great commercial value when it was abundant throughout the Bahamas, Florida Keys and Gulf of Mexico. Other common sponge species at the study site were collected to investigate the host specificity of L. vivipara. Evidence that L. vivipara favorably selects the sponges Hippospongia cf. gossypina and Chondrilla nucula over other potential host sponges at the study site is provided. Commensalism is the most plausible justification for this relationship: L. vivipara is dependent on sponges for protection and food particles, while the sponges are unaffected by its presence. Further evidence of host-specific inquilinism is provided for L. vivipara associated with Hippospongia cf. gossypina, but not for L. vivipara associated with C. nucula. An inquilinistic association between an entoproct and sponge is a rare discovery only mentioned in one previous study. Sponge aquiferous qualities such as aperture and canal size, canal and choanocyte chamber arrangement, seawater pumping rate, and food particle size selection are likely factors that inhibit or enable inquilinism in sponge-entoproct associations – a potential topic for future researc
Identifier: FA00004791 (IID)
Degree granted: Thesis (M.S.)--Florida Atlantic University, 2016.
Collection: FAU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Collection
Note(s): Includes bibliography.
Subject(s): Marine invertebrates--Florida.
Sponges--Habitat--Florida.
Marine resources--Florida--Management.
Aquatic biology.
Entoprocta--Classification.
Held by: Florida Atlantic University Libraries
Sublocation: Digital Library
Links: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00004791
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/fau/fd/FA00004791
Use and Reproduction: Copyright © is held by the author with permission granted to Florida Atlantic University to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Use and Reproduction: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Host Institution: FAU
Is Part of Series: Florida Atlantic University Digital Library Collections.